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Israel's 70 Years Exile through the 70th and final week to the coming of the Messiah: To the second coming of our Lord, Jesus Christ!
The following is the prophetic history in the destiny of Israel.
Solomon's Temple, also known as the First Temple, was destroyed in 586 BCE when the Jews were exiled into
Babylonian Captivity. In the 19th year in the reign of Nebuchadnezzar, according to Jer.52:12-13/from Jer.25:1, in 605 B.C. According to the Hebrew Bible, the First Temple was built in 957 B.C. by King Solomon (reigned c.970-c.930 BC). As the sole place of Jewish sacrifice, the Temple replaced the portable tabernacle sanctuary constructed in the Sinai Desert under the direction of Moses.
Solomon's Temple, also known as the First Temple, was destroyed in 586 BCE when the Jews were exiled into Babylonian Captivity, for 70 years. In the 19th year in the reign of Nebuchadnezzar, according to Jer.52:12-13/from Jer.25:1, 10-11, in 605 B.C.
Nebuchadnezzar: 605 B.C. to 561 B.C.
Amel-Marduk [Evil Merodach]: 561 B.C. to 559 B.C.
Nergalsharusur: 559 B.C. to 555 B. C.
Nabonidus: 555 B.C. to 539 B.C.
Belshazzar [Son of Nabonidus and co-regent]: 546 B.C. to 539 B.C.
Review of Solomon's temple: http://www.templemount.org/solomon.html
Fourty seven years after Solomon's temple was destroyed in 586 B.C., Cyrus the Great, ordered and declared the building of the second temple, in his first year of reign, in 539 B.C, in Ezra 1:1 (2Chronicles 36:22-23). Cyrus was succeeded by his son Cambyses. Followed by the "false Smerdis," an imposter, occupied the throne for some seven or eight months and then Darius I the Great of Persia became king (522 BCE). After lengthy delays, in the second year of Darius, the work of building the second temple was resumed and carried forward to its completion (Ezra 5:6-6:15), under the admonitions of the prophets Haggai and Zechariah. It was ready for consecration in the spring of 516 BC. The second temple was completed on the third day of the month Adar, in the sixth year of the reign of King Darius [522 B.C. to 516 B.C.], in 516 B.C., according to Ezra 6:15, in exactly 70 years after Judah was taken into exile.
Cyrus: 539 B.C to 530 B.C.
Cambyses: 530 to 523 B.C.
Pseudo Smerdis: 523 B.C. to 522 B.C.
Darius the Great: 522 B.C. to 486 B.C.
Xerxes 486 B.C. to 465 B.C.
Artaxerxes I 464 B.C. to 423 B.C.
The Second Temple (Hebrew: בית המקדש, romanized: 'Beit HaMikdash' meaning 'Holy House') was the reconstructed Temple in Jerusalem which stood between 516 BCE and 70 CE. During this time, it was the center of Jewish worship, which focused on the sacrifices known as the korbanot.
Construction of the new temple was begun in 535; after a hiatus, work resumed ca. 521, with completion occurring in 516 B.C. and dedication in 515 B.C. As described in the Book of Ezra, rebuilding of the Temple was authorized by Cyrus the Great and ratified by Darius the Great. The Romans destroyed Jerusalem and its Second Temple on August 4th 70 CE, ending the Great Jewish Revolt that began in 66 CE.
The above Scriptures clearly reveal the 70 year exile of Israel was completed between the 19th year in the reign of king Nebuchanezzar of Babylon and the 6th year in the reign of king Darius of Persia in 516 B.C. From 586 B.C. to 516 B.C. was precisely the 70 years of exile prophecied by Jeremiah The second temple was dedicated in 515 B.C., as recorded above.
In the 20th year in the reign of king Artaxerxes, of Persia, precisely 70 years after the dedication of the second temple in 515 B.C., from 465 B.C. to 445 B.C., his decree was issued to rebuild Jerusalem, including the streets and the walls. The precise starting point of Daniel's prophecy of the 70 Weeks of years, God decreed on the destiny of Israel, was 445 B.C., according to Neh.2:1-8, recorded in Dan.9:24-27.
Review of Zarubbabel's temple through enlargement by Herod:
Israel's Sabbatical Year
In reaching a correct understanding of Daniel 9:24-27, it is necessary to understand the circumstances that occasioned the giving of this revelation by God to Daniel. No one questions that it relates to Israel’s Babylonian captivity for failure to observe the sabbatical year, given to Israel by the Lord. But how does that relate to the 70-weeks prophecy? As part of the stipulations in the Mosaic Law Code, Israel was to let her land lay fallow every seventh year.
“Speak to the sons of Israel, and say to them, ‘When you come into the land which I shall give you, then the land shall have a sabbath to the Lord. Six years you shall sow your field, and six years you shall prune your vineyard and gather in its crop, but during the seventh year the land shall have a sabbath rest, a sabbath to the LORD; you shall not sow your field nor prune your vineyard. Your harvest’s aftergrowth you shall not reap, and your grapes of untrimmed vines you shall not gather; the land shall have a sabbatical year. And all of you shall have the sabbath products of the land for food; yourself, and your male and female slaves, and your hired man and your foreign resident, those who live as aliens with you’” (Lev. 25:2-6).
Leviticus 26 provides the sanctions that God would impose upon Israel for the years that they did not obey the specifications of a sabbatical year.
"Then the land will enjoy its sabbaths all the days of the desolation, while you are in your enemies’ land; then the land will rest and enjoy its sabbaths. All the days of its desolation it will observe the rest which it did not observe on your sabbaths, while you were living on it." (Lev. 26:34-35).
"For the land shall be abandoned by them, and shall make up for its sabbaths while it is made desolate without them. They, meanwhile, shall be making amends for their iniquity, because they rejected My ordinances and their soul abhorred My statutes." (Lev. 26:43).
The Lord clearly revealed to Israel on how they were keeping or not keeping His Law in the historical book of Samuel, Kings, and Chronicles and why Israel was sent away to Babylon for 70 years in the following passage:
"And those who had escaped from the sword he carried away to Babylon; and they were servants to him and to his sons until the rule of the kingdom of Persia, to fulfill the word of the Lord by the mouth of Jeremiah, until the land had enjoyed its sabbaths. all the days of its desolation it kept sabbath until seventy years were complete." (2 Chr. 36:20-21).
What passage in Jeremiah was the statement in Chronicles referring to? The following two references provide the answer.
And this whole land shall be a desolation and a horror, and these nations shall serve the king of Babylon seventy years (Jer. 25:11).
For thus says the Lord, “When seventy years have been completed for Babylon, I will visit you and fulfill My good word to you, to bring you back to this place.” (Jer. 29:10).
It is clear from the above passages that God had a specific reason behind the deportation of the Southern Kingdom (Judah) to Babylon for 70 years. This would mean that Israel violated the sabbatical year 70 times. The Jews entered the Promised Land around 1450 b.c. and were deported to Babylon around 600 b.c. This means that they were in the land about 850 years before the Babylonian deportation. Had they disobeyed the sabbatical year commandment every seventh year, it would mean that they should have been in captivity for more than 121 years. Instead, they were held captive for 70 years, meaning that they were disobedient for only 490 of the 850 years in the land. This would mean that there were breaks or gaps in the accumulation of the 490 years, during the 850-year period, that resulted in Israel’s 70-year captivity. Why is this important? Because many of the critics of the literal interpretation of Daniel 9:24-27 insist that it is unreasonable to have gaps in that 490-year period. Which is false, since there were many gaps in the 490-year period related to the Babylonian Captivity.
Critics of a Future 70th Week
Preterist Gary DeMar is one of the most outspoken critics of a yet future 70th week of Daniel. DeMar argues that there are never any gaps in any time periods in Scripture that he examines. He declares, “If we can find no gaps in the sequence of years in these examples, then how can a single exception be made with the ‘seventy weeks’ in Daniel 9:24-27?” Interestingly, DeMar does not examine the 490-year period that took place during the 850 years of Israel’s occupation of the land as mentioned above. As I have noted, there are all kinds of gaps within this sequence. There were roughly 360 years of gaps interspersed throughout the 850-year period. This makes it directly related to the 70-weeks prophecy given to Daniel. DeMar acknowledges that Daniel’s 70-weeks are related to the violation of the sabbatical year laws of Leviticus 25 and 26, and connected to 2 Chronicles 36 and Jeremiah 25. But he fails to observe the fact that the 490 years of Daniel 9:24-27 are derived from the 490 years of Israel’s violation of the sabbatical years prescribed by God, over the 850 years they became a nation, in His covenant with the nation.
Dr. Harold Hoehner answers critics like DeMar when he notes that “The seventy-year captivity was due to the Jews having violated seventy sabbatical years over a total of a 490 year period out of 850 years they were a nation, and Daniel now saw seventy units of sevens decreed for another 490 years into Israel’s future.” Hoehner has diagramed this relationship as noted in the “Units of Seventy” chart below.
We also know that Daniel himself was familiar with the reason why God had sent His people into the Babylonian captivity from the first part of Daniel 9.
In the first year of Darius the son of Ahasuerus, of Median descent, who was made king over the kingdom of the Chaldeans-in the first year of his reign I, Daniel, observed in the books the number of the years which was revealed as the word of the LORD to Jeremiah the prophet for the completion of the desolations of Jerusalem, namely, seventy years. So I gave my attention to the Lord God to seek Him by prayer and supplications, with fasting, sackcloth, and ashes (Dan. 9:1-3).
Dr. Leon Wood explains this matter as follows:
Since Daniel was thinking in terms of the seventy-year captivity, as a Hebrew, could have easily moved from the idea of one week of years to seventy weeks of years. This follows because, according to 2 Chronicles 36:21, the people had been punished by this Exile so that their land might enjoy the sabbath rests which had not been observed in their prior history (cf. Lev. 26:33-35, Jer. 34:12-22). Knowing this, Daniel would have recognized that the seventy years of the Exile represented seventy sevens of years in which these violations had transpired; and he would have understood Gabriel to be saying, simply, that another period, similar in length to that which had made the Exile necessary, was coming in the experienced of the people.
Even though DeMar recognizes the cause for Daniel’s prayer and the subsequent revelation of the angel Gabriel to Daniel of the 70-weeks prophecy, he fails to recognize that the 70-year captivity was based upon a 490-year period that occurred out of a total of 850 years they were a nation, contained multiple gaps of time.
DeMar argues that a gap of time between the 69th and 70th week of Daniel is not justified because there are not other examples of this in Scripture. Which justifies such a gap as an example that other gaps occur in the Scriptures as well. An example has not only been found, but it is directly related to the 70-weeks prophecy of Daniel. Thus, using DeMar’s standard, he should recognize that a gap in Daniel 9:24-27 is justifiable.
Gary DeMar goes on to insist that it is impossible to have any kind of gap or chronological postponement of time between the 69th and 70th week of Daniel. As has already been noted, the text says nothing about "a period between the sixty-ninth and seventieth-weeks." There can be no "period between" any time period, whether seconds, minutes, hours, days, weeks, or years unless a period of time is expressly given. It is impossible to insert time between the end of one year and the beginning of another. January 1st follows December 31st at the stroke of midnight. There is no "period between" the conclusion of one year and the beginning of the next year. Culver, therefore, begs the question. He first must prove that a period of time should be placed between the sixty-ninth and seventieth weeks before he can maintain that there is a "period between" the sixty-ninth and seventieth weeks. The "simple language of the text" makes no mention of a gap."
However, there is clear evidence why the 70th week of Daniel is yet future and, thus, the necessity of a gap of time between the 69th and 70th week. Just as Gary DeMar and others who do not think that Daniel 9:24-27 can be taken literally are mistaken. Daniel 9:24-27 allows for a gap of time between the 69th and 70th week because the advancing of God’s program relating to His people Israel was put on hold and will be postponed until a future time. Primarily, because Israel ceased to be a nation after 70 A.D. until reestablished on May 14, 1948. Apparently critics like DeMar are not able to see the time gaps of the past, like the one demonstrated in this article, so it is not surprising that they do not understand how there is one in God’s future plan for His people Israel.
Seventy Weeks/sevens Are Determined Upon Your People!
The following is a complete analysis Of the amazing prophecy found in the book of Daniel, in Dan.9:24-27. We will begin in verse 24 where the angel Gabriel is giving this prophecy to Daniel, the prophet.
"Seventy weeks are determined upon thy people and upon thy holy city, to finish the transgression, and to make an end of sins, and to bring in everlasting righteousness, and to seal up the vision and the prophecy, and to anoint the most Holy."
1. Referrence here is to what God has decreed upon Daniel's people, Israel. (It has nothing at all to do with the church!)
2. See Gen.29:27 to explain that this biblical term of "one week" equals seven years. So the 70 weeks here, represents a total of 490 years, or 7 X 70.)
Vs.25. "Know, therefore, and understand, that from the going forth of the commandment to restore and to build Jerusalem unto the Messiah/Prince/Anointed One, shall be seven weeks, and threescore and two weeks; (49 + 434 = 483 years, covering 69 of the 70 weeks,) the street shall be built again, and the wall, even in troublous times." (See Neh.1:6.)
The first seven weeks of the prophecy, or 49 years in vs 25, refers to the dedication of the completed rebuilding of Jerusalem and the walls, in the 32nd year of the Persian king, Artaxerxes, in the 7th month, [Neh.5:14 and 8:1] leaving the remainder, or 62 more weeks, of 434 more years, for a total of 69 weeks, or 483 years] to the triumphant entry of Jesus into Jerusalem.[/b]
According to the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, England, the exact date of King Artaxerxes, of Persia, gave the decree for some of the Israeli exiles to return to Jerusalem on March 14, 445 BC.
From the 69 weeks (Of years) from above, or 483 years, multiplied by the 360 days of the Hebrew year, equals 173,880 days.
Vs.26. "And after the sixty two weeks/sevens [Plus the first seven weeks/sevens; for a total of sixty nine weeks/sevens], to the triumphant entry of Jesus into Jerusalem, on April 6, 32 A.D. the Anointed One/the Messiah/the Prince will be cut off and will have nothing." Culminating in a total of 69 weeks, or 483 years, which began with the Persian King, Artaxerxes Decree on March 14th, 445 BC.) "...and the people of the prince that shall come, the Roman army, led by general Titus, shall destroy the city and the sanctuary [in 70 A.D.], and the end of it shall be with a flood, and unto the end of the war desolations are determined." 483 years of the 490 prophecied were fulfilled through Dan.9:26. 26. The 7oth and final week of 7 years, documented in Dan.9:27, is yet to come, as Jesus described in His Olivet Discourse, in Mt.24; Mk.13 and in Lk.21.
After Jesus has been crucified, the Roman (prince) Titus comes with his legions and destroys Jerusalem and the second temple in 70 AD, after bitter fighting, scattering Israel and the Jewish people into their diaspora.
To establish the time Jesus began His ministry, and approximate age, we find the evidence in Luke 3:1 and 3:23.
Lk.3:1. "Now in the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar, Pontius Pilot being governor of Judaea, and Herod being tetrarch of Galilee, and his brother Philip, tetrarch of Ituraea and of the region of Thrachonitis and Lysanias, the tetrarch of Abilene, Annas and Caiaphas being the high priests, the word of God came unto John, the son of Zacharias, in the wilderness."
Which brings us to 29 AD and Jesus is about 30 years of age.
Lk.3:23. "And Jesus Himself began to be about 30 years of age, (When all Jewish priests begin their priesthood.) being (as was supposed) the son of Joseph, who was the son of Heli,"
Jn.12:12-13. "On the next day many people that were come to the feast, when they heard that Jesus was coming to Jerusalem, Took branches of palm trees and and went forth to meet Him, and cried Hosanna! Blessed is the King of Israel, that cometh in the name of the Lord." April 6th 32 AD. [According to Sir Robert Armstrong at the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, England.]
There are 173,880 days from King Artaxerxes of Persia, decree of March 14,445 BC. From Neh.2:1-8. Based on the 360 day Hebrew year. Which makes no difference whatever from a 365 day year, when all the necessary corrections are made.
Or it can also be calculated from the 365 day year as follows:
445 B.C. to 32 A.D. is 476 years (B.C. 1 to A.D. 1 is one year).
476 x 365 days 173,740 days
Add for leap years 116 days (less 3 in 4 centuries) = 173,856
March 14 to April 6, plus 24 days (inclusive) 173,856
+ 24 days = 173,880 total days.
Terminal event of 69 weeks:
The above date was the same day that the Lord Jesus Christ fulfilled the prophecy of Zechariah 9:9 (compare Luke19:28-44).
360 X 483 = 173,880 days. Since the earth is 360 degrees in circumference, why not one day per degree ?
Converting the 365.2422 day year to the 360 day year:
1. 32 years [AD] X 365 days in our year = 11,680 days.
2. 445 years [BC] X 365 days in our year = 162,425 days.
3. Total 174,105 days divided by 365 = 477 years.
4. Plus 24 days between the date of the decree in 445 BC and Jesus cut-off in 32 AD = 477 years, 24 days
5. Subtract one year because there is no year zero between 1 BC and 1 AD. = 476 years, 24 days.
6. 476 years X 365 days = 173,740 days +24 = 173,764 Days
7. Add days of the leap years over 476 years. Divided by 4 = 119 days = 173,883 days
8. Subtract 1/128 Calendar year day for every solar year: Leap year omitted every 128 years.= -3 days
= 173,880 days!
Which reveals the 360 day prophetic year of Israel is the very same as our present 365 day year when all the corrections have been made to the latter.
The 70th week of Daniel's prophecy, of the final 7 years, is the Tribulation/Jacob's Trouble/Day of the Lord [Jer.30:7and 2 Thes.2:2-3] which will conclude the 490 year prophecy decreed upon his people, with a 2,000 year parenthetic in between, that covers the entire church age!
Dan.9:27. "And he shall confirm the covenant with many for one week; and in the midst of the week he shall cause the sacrifice and the oblation to cease, and for the overspreading of abominations he shall make it desolate, even until the consummation, and that determined shall be poured upon the desolate." Note that all three of the "he's" in that vs is the antichrist, the beast out of the sea, whom Satan will give his throne, power and great authority, according to Rev.13:1-2.
Amplified in the Olivet Discourse in Mt.24 and the counterparts in Mk.13 and in Lk.21, as well as in Rev.6.
The Second Coming of the Messiah, our Lord Jesus Christ!
When the 70th and final week [seven years] prophecy described above is nearly completed, yet to take place, the Messiah, our Lord Jesus Christ, will return to the Mount of Olives, according to Zech.14:4-5, with all the saints, the Church, following Him, riding on white horses, dressed in fine linen, white and clean, in His armies from heaven, according to Rev.19:14, together with the angels, according to Mt.24:30-31.
Jesus will lead us into the battle of Armageddon against the two beasts, the antichrist, and the false prophet and the ten horns [nations] allied with them. Our glorified bodies will be indestructable as well as sealed by the Holy Spirit. We will destroy the armies of the antichrist and the false prophet whom Jesus will throw into the lake of fire, recorded in Rev.19:17-20.