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Egyptian vs Biblical Chronology
- Main article: Egyptian chronology
Skeptics often criticize the Bible because its chronology disagrees with the standard chronology of ancient Egypt. However, this argument assumes that the Egyptian, rather than Hebrew chronology, is correct. One might just as easily argue that the Egyptian chronology is wrong, because it disagrees with the Hebrew.
In fact, there is no original "Egyptian chronology." Egyptian historical accounts record the lengths of the reigns of kings and dynasties, but do not tell when these kings and dynasties ruled in relation to each other. The Standard Egyptian Chronology was developed in the early 20th century, based on the assumption that no two Egyptian dynasties ruled simultaneously, (which is demonstrably false), and a series of inferences and calculations based on the so-called Sothic cycle, (an assumption without any substantive evidence to support it).
In contrast to this questionable Egyptian chronology invented in the 20th century and based on false assumptions and hypothetical calendars, the Biblical chronology records not only the birth and death of many of the patriarchs, but also reports their lives in relation to each other, and, in some cases, gives the month, day, and year when important events occurred.
As a result, some creationist archaeologists (and secular Middle Eastern historians like Velikovsky) argue that the standard Egyptian chronology is erroneous, and in need of revision. They reject the two assumptions above, and have proposed a revised Egyptian chronology, consistent with the Hebrew chronology and with the archaeological evidence.
Based on chart in Creation Vol. 27 No. 3 (June–August 2005)
- OK = Old Kingdom
- FIP = First Intermediate Period.
- MK = Middle Kingdom
- SIP = Second Intermediate Period.
- NK = New Kingdom
- TIP = Third Intermediate Period.
- LP = Late and Persian Period.
- C = Creation.
- F = The Flood.
- B = Babel.
- A = Abraham.
- J = Joseph.
- M = Moses and the Exodus.
- DS = David and Solomon.
This chart shows the standard Egyptian and revised Egyptian chronologies and how they compare to the Biblical chronology. Note that with this shift the Biblical events are not only shifted into different dynasties, but different periods as well, with the flood and Babel predating the beginning of Egyptian history. Also note that the post-flood ice agecoincides with the early Egyptian history, ending about 100 years after Joseph. This not only explains the famine of Joseph's day, but the water erosion on The Great Sphinx.
The standard Egyptian chronology causes problems for nearly every other civilization that it is used to date. It causes an unexplained dark ages across the ancient world. It also disagrees with 8th and 9th century Assyrian records that show them warring against the Hittites some 500 years after the standard Egyptian chronology claims that the Hittites were wiped out. The Hittite kings the Assyrians were warring against are the same kings found in Hittite records dated 500 years earlier by the Egyptian chronology.
Furthermore, when these corrections are made, there is abundant evidence for Joseph, Moses, the Exodus of Israel,David, and Solomon right where the Bible says they are. The reason for the alleged lack of evidence is thatarchaeologists have been looking in the wrong places, because their chronology is wrong.